Cách dùng đại từ quan hệ, trạng từ quan hệ, mệnh đề quan hệ kèm bài tập

Mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề phụ được nối với mệnh đề chính bởi các đại từ quan hệ (who, whom, whose, which, that ) hay các trạng từ quan hệ như (where, when, why). Mệnh đề quan hệ đứng ngay đằng sau danh từ, đại từ trong mệnh đề chính để bổ sung ý nghĩa cho danh từ, đại từ ấy,phân biệt danh từ đại từ ấy với các danh từ đại từ khác. Chức năng của nó giống như một tính từ do vậy nó còn được gọi là mệnh đề tính ngữ.

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I. Các đại từ quan hệ

1, Who: Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ người làm chủ ngữ, đứng sau tiền ngữ chỉ người để làm chủ ngữ cho động từ đứng sau nó.

-Theo sau who là một động từ

Eg: The man who is sitting by the fire is my father.

->That is the boy who helped me to find your house.

2, Whom:

– Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ người làm tân ngữ, đứng sau tiền ngữ chỉ người để làm tân ngữ cho động từ đứng sau nó.

-Theo sau whom là một chủ ngữ

Eg: The woman whom you saw yesterday is my aunt.

->The boy whom we are looking for is Tom.

Eg:This is the book. I like it best.

3, Which:

– Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ vật, làm chủ ngữ hoặc tân ngữ cho động từ sau nó.

-Theo sau which có thể là một động từ hoặc một chủ ngữ.

=> This is the book which I like best.

The hat is red. It is mine.

=> The hat which is red is mine.

– Khi which làm tân ngữ, ta có thể lược bỏ which

Eg: The dress (which) I bought yesterday is very beautiful.

4, That:

Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ cả người lẫn vật, có thể được dùng thay cho Who, Whom, Which trong mệnh đề quan hệ thuộc loại Restricted Clause (Mệnh đề xác định)

Eg: – That is the book that I like best.
– That is the bicycle that belongs to Tom.
– My father is the person that I admire most.
– I can see the girl and her dog that are running in the park.

* Các trường hợp thường dùng “that”:

– khi đi sau các hình thức so sánh nhất
– khi đi sau các từ: only, the first, the last
– khi danh từ đi trước bao gôm cả người và vật
– khi đi sau các đại từ bất định, đại từ phủ định, đại từ chỉ số lượng: no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anything, anybody, someone, something, somebody, all, some, any, little, none.

Ex: – He was the most interesting person that I have ever met. It was the first time that I heard of it.

These books are all that my sister left me.

She talked about the people and places that she had visited.

* Các trường hợp không dùng that:

– trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định

– sau giới từ

5, Whose:

– Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ người, thay cho tính từ sở hữu. Whose cũng được dùng cho of which.

-Theo sau Whose luôn là 1 danh từ.

Eg: – The boy is Tom. You borrowed his bicycle yesterday.
=> The boy whose bicycle you borrowed yesterday is Tom.

– John found a cat. Its leg was broken.
=> John found a cat whose leg was broken.

II. Các trạng từ quan hệ

1, When: là trạng từ quan hệ chỉ thời gian, đứng sau tiền ngữ chỉ thời gian, dùng thay cho at, on, in + which, then

Eg: May Day is the day when people hold a meeting. (= on which)

I’ll never forget the day when I met her. (=on which)

That was the time when he managed the company. (= at which)

2. Where: là trạng từ quan hệ chỉ nơi trốn, thay cho at, on, in + which; there

Eg: – That is the house where we used to live. (= in which)

– Do you know the country where I was born?

– Hanoi is the place where I like to come.

3. Why: là trạng từ quan hệ chỉ lí do, đứng sau tiền ngữ “the reason”, dùng thay cho “for the reason”

Eg: – Please tell me the reason why you are so sad. (= for which)

– He told me the reason why he had been absent from class the day before.

III. Các loại mệnh đề quan hệ: có ba loại mệnh đề quan hệ

1. Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định ( restrictive relative clause)

– Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước, là bộ phận quan trọng của câu,nếu bỏ đi mệnh đề chính không có nghĩa rõ ràng.

Eg The girl who is wearing the blue dress is my sister.

The book which I borrowed from you is very interesting.

2. Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định (non- restrictive relative clause )

– Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước,là phần giải thích thêm, nếu bỏ đi mệnh đề chính vẫn còn nghĩa rõ ràng.

– Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định thường được ngăn với mệnh đề chính bởi các dấu phẩy. Danh từ đứng trước thường là tên riêng hoặc trước các danh từ thường có các từ như: this, that, these, those, my, his her…đứng trước.

– Không được dùng that trong mệnh đề không xác định.

Eg My father, who is 50 years old, is a doctor.

This girl, whom you met yesterday, is my daughter.

3. Mệnh đề quan hệ nối tiếp.

– Mệnh đề quan hệ nối tiếp dùng để giải thích cả một câu, trường hợp này chỉ dùng đại từ quan hệ which và dùng dấu phẩy để tách hai mệnh đề. Mệnh đề này luôn đứng ở cuối câu.

Eg: – He admires Mr Brown, which surprises me.

– Mary tore Tom’s letter, which made him sad.

IV. Bài tập

Tổng hợp 45 câu bài tập mệnh đề quan hệ kinh điển bạn có thể bắt gặp trong tất cả các kỳ thi

I. Nối hai câu riêng lẻ dưới đây thành một câu sử dụng mệnh đề quan hệ.

  1. He worked for a woman. She used to be an artist.
  2. They called a doctor. He lived nearby.
  3. I wrote an email to my sister. She lives in Italy.
  4. Linh liked the waiter. He was very friendly.
  5. We broke a car. It belonged to my uncle.
  6. Ba dropped a cup. It was new.
  7. Nam loves books. They have happy endings.
  8. I live in a city. It is in the north of Vietnam.
  9. The man is in the class. He is wearing a blue hat.
  10. The woman works in a hospital. She is from India.
  11. My sister has four sons. She lives in Japan.
  12. The man was rude. He was wearing a red shirt.
  13. The phone is on the table. It belongs to An.
  14. The TV got broken. It was my grandfather’s.
  15. The radio was stolen. It was bought 35 years ago.
  16. The girl gave Binh his phone. She is his daughter.
  17. This is the laptop. My mother has just bought it.
  18. That’s the man. His car is a Ferrari.
  19. I know the woman. She lives upstairs.
  20. It’s the dog. I always talk to him at night.
  21. She opened the cupboard. She kept her best glasses in there.
  22. This is the house. General Giap lived here.
  23. The flight was canceled. We were going to take it.
  24. I saw the lady in the shop. She was Vicki Zhao.
  25. The man is a director. His dog is sick.
  26. My violin is missing. It was my birthday present.
  27. I first learn English from a book. I’ve just reread it.
  28. The police officer has just arrested a man. He robbed the bank.
  29. These are the shoes. I bought them in HCMC

 

II. Bắt đầu từ câu 30, hãy nối hai câu bằng dạng rút gọn của mệnh đề quan hệ.

Mệnh đề quan hệ có thể được rút gọn bằng nhiều cách. Trước khi làm bài, hãy đảm bảo bạn có đầy đủ kiến thức về mệnh đề quan hệ rút gọn.

  1. She bought the car. Her father had recommended it.
  2. He lost the pen. I had given it to him.
  3. We called the delivery company. Nga often uses it.
  4. Lam met a girl. I used to employ her.
  5. Chi called the lawyer. My mother knows him.
  6. He brought a woman. I worked with her last year.
  7. We employed the pianist. Hai introduced her.
  8. The cake is on the table. I bought it.
  9. The book belongs to Lan. An found it under the chair.
  10. The food was delicious. Huy cooked the food.
  11. The bike was stolen. My parents gave me the bike.
  12. The man was arrested. I reported him to the police.
  13. The teacher was right. Ngan asked him about her problem.
  14. The writer was very pretty. My brother dated her.
  15. The secretary is in the office. Dzung likes her.
  16. We ate the food. I bought the food.

Đáp án:

  1. He worked for a woman who used to be an artist.
  2. They called a doctor who lived nearby.
  3. I wrote an email to my sister who lives in Italy.
  4. Linh liked the waiter who was very friendly.
  5. We broke a car that belonged to my uncle.
  6. Ba dropped a cup which was new.
  7. Nam loves books that have happy endings.
  8. I live in a city that is in the north of Vietnam.
  9. The man who is wearing a blue hat is in the class.
  10. The woman who is from India works in a hospital.
  11. My sister who lives in Japan has four sons.
  12. The man who was wearing a red shirt was rude.
  13. The phone that belongs to An is on the table.
  14. The TV that was my grandfather’s got broken.
  15. The radio that was bought 35 years ago was stolen.
  16. The girl who gave Binh his phone is his daughter.
  17. This is the laptop which my mother has just bought.
  18. That’s the man whose car is a Ferrari.
  19. I know the woman who lives upstairs.
  20. It’s the dog that I always talk to at night.
  21. She opened the cupboard where she kept her best glasses.
  22. This is the house where General Giap lived.
  23. The flight that we were going to take was canceled.
  24. The lady that I saw in the shop was Vicki Zhao.
  25. The man whose dog is sick is a director.
  26. The violin that is missing was my birthday present.
  27. I’ve just reread the book which I first learned English from.
  28. The police officer has just arrested the man who robbed the bank.
  29. These are the shoes that I bought in HCMC.
  30. She bought the car her father had recommended.
  31. He lost the pen I had given him.
  32. We called the delivery company Nga often uses.
  33. Lam met a girl I used to employ.
  34. Chi called the lawyer my mother knows.
  35. He brought a woman I worked with last year.
  36. We employed the pianist Hai introduced.
  37. The cake I bought is on the table.
  38. The wallet An found under the chair belongs to Lan.
  39. The food Huy cooked was delicious.
  40. The bike my parents gave me was stolen.
  41. The man I reported to the police was arrested.
  42. The teacher Ngan asked about her problem was right.
  43. The writer my brother dated was very pretty.
  44. The secretary Dzung likes is in the office.
  45. We ate the food I bought.

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