Cụm giới từ là một nhóm các từ bắt đầu bằng một giới từ và kết thúc bằng một danh từ, đại từ hoặc một cụm danh từ có cấu trúc: Cụm giới từ = Giới từ + Tân ngữ giới từ (danh từ/ đại từ/ cụm danh từ). Nếu bạn đang luyện thi toeic, ôn thi THPT Quốc Gia thì chắc hẳn bạn sẽ thấy các bài tập về cụm giới từ có xuất hiện trong các đề thi và thường không khó, là phần có thể giúp bạn kiếm được kha khá điểm đấy!
200 cụm giới từ thông dụng với AT, BY, FOR, IN, ON
1. Cụm giới từ với “AT”
• at the age of: Ở độ tuổi
– I learned to drive at the age of 21.
• at the beginning of: lúc đầu
– I joined a gym at the beginning of the year.
• at the bottom of Phía dưới cùng
– There’s a shop at the bottom of this hill.
• at all costs Bất cứ giá nào
– I need to pass this exam at all costs.
• at one’s desk: Chỗ làm việc
– My manager spoke to me at my desk.
• at the door: ở cửa
– There’s somebody at the door.
• at the end: cuối
– I’m going to Madrid at the end of month.
• at fault: Có lỗi
– Who was at fault for the accident?
• at first: Lúc đầu
– At first, I was happy here but now I’m not.
• at first sight: Tình yêu sét đánh
– We met at university and it was love at first sight.
• at a glance: Ngay từ đầu
– I knew at a glance that something was wrong.
• at a guess – At a guess, 50 people were at the party.
• at hand: trong tay
– I always have a pen at hand in case I need to take notes.
• at …km per hour: ở tốc động
– He was fined £150 for driving at 200km per hour.
• at last: Cuối cùng
– At last, our bus has arrived. Thank goodness!
• at the latest: Thời điểm muộn nhất
– Cinderella had to be home by 12 at the latest.
• at least: Ít nhất
– It’s cold but at least it’s not raining.
• at length: Cực kỳ chi tiết, khoảng thời gian dài
– My dad could talk at length about Irish history.
• at midday/midnight: nửa đêm
– I went home at midnight as I was tired.
• at the moment: Ngay lúc này
– I’m living in Ireland at the moment.
• at night: Buổi tối
– I can’t study during the day. I prefer to study at night.
• at once: từng lần một
– Everybody started talking at once.
• at present: Ngay lúc này
– At present, I’m working for a multinational.
• at random: Ngẫu nhiên
– Numbers are selected at random in a lottery.
• at any rate: Bất cứ tỉ lệ, trường hợp
– At any rate, I’m confident I’ll find a job soon.
• at the same time: Cùng lúc
– I had fun and improved my English at the same time.
• at school: Ở trường
– Things were very different when I was at school.
• at short notice: Phút chót
– She cancelled the meeting at short notice.
• at the table: Trên bàn
– The whole family sat at the table for dinner.
• at times: Có những lúc
– At times, I feel like giving up.
• at the top of: Đứng đầu
– Barcelona are at the top of the Spanish league.
• at university: Tại trường đại học
– I studied economics at university.
• at the weekend: Cuối tuần
– I love going out with friends at the weekend.
• at work: Đang làm việc
– I’m at work right now so I’ll call you back later.
• At a loss: Lỗ
– We sold those old computers at a loss.
• At a moment’s notice: Ngay lập tức
– The soldiers were ready at a moment’s notice.
• At a stretch: Một khoảng thời gian liên tục
– He worked for fifteen hours at a stretch.
• At all costs: bất cứ giá nào
– We have to retain the majority at all costs.
• At cost: Giá gốc
– I will sell you the apples at cost.
• At first: Lúc đầu
– If at first you don’t succeed, do it like your father told you
• At full tilt: Tốc độ tối đa
– Don’t go racing around corners at full tilt or you’ll hit someone.
2. Cụm giới từ với “BY”
• by accident: Vô tình
– I was so sleepy that I put salt in my coffee by accident.
• by all accounts: Theo những gì được biết
– By all accounts, Seville is a beautiful city.
• by appointment: Việc xảy ra vào dịp đặc biệt
– The museum is open at weekends by appointment.
• by the arm/hand: Cầm tay
– He took me by the hand as we walked along the beach.
• by auction: Đấu giá
– We’re selling our antique furniture by auction.
• by birth: Gốc – I grew up in England but I’m Irish by birth.
• by bus/train/plane, etc.
– Are you going to go there by bus or by train?
• by chance: Vô tình
– I found some money in my jacket pocket by chance.
• by cheque: bằng Séc
– l’ue never paid for anything by cheque.
• by day/night: lúc tối
– The Eiffel Tower looks spectacular by night.
• by design: Định hướng
– I became a teacher more by accident than by design.
• by the drozen: Một tá
– I always buy eggs by the drozen. A drozen means 12.
• by far: đến thời điểm này
– ‘Before Sunset’ is by far my favourite film
• by hand: tự làm
– My granduncle built this house by hand.
• by heart: học thuộc lòng
– At school we had to learn poems by heart.
• by invitation: Được mời
– Membership to the club is by invitation only.
• by land/sea/air
– I get sick whenever I travel by sea.
• by law: Bởi luật pháp – Dog owners must have a licence for the pets by law.
• by luck: Gặp may – They played badly but won the match by luck.
• by means of: Bởi
– I was able to afford the car by means of a bank loan.
• by mistake: Không may – I chose the wrong road by mistake. Now we’re lost.
• by nature: Tự nhiên
– German people tend to be quite organised bu nature.
• by no means: Không có lẽ gì
– It’s by no means certain that the economy will improve.
• by now: Đến lúc này
– If you don’t know me by now, you’ll never know me.
• by oneself – I don’t mind spending time by myself.
• by phone – Get in touch with me by phone if you need any help.
• by post: Gửi bưu điện
– Do you think it’s safe to send cash by post.
• by request:yêu cầu – Guided tours of the gallery are available by request.
• by rights: Đúng luật
– By rights, it’s my turn to play but you can go ahead.
• by one’s side: Bên cạnh ai
– He was by her side whenever she needed him.
• by surprise: Ngạc nhiên
– The unusual question took John by surprise.
• by the time: Đến thời điểm nào
– I’ll have gone to bed by the time you get home.
• by the way: Nhân tiện
– By the way, I won’t be able to come to class next week.
• by word of mouth: lời nói
– The best form of advertising is by word of mouth.
• By a whisker: Một khoảng cách cực ky ngắn
– I’m lucky to be alive. The bus missed me by a whisker.
• By accident: Vô tình
– Sorry. I knocked over the vase by accident.
• By and large: nói chung, tổng thể
– It was, by and large, an unexceptional presentation.
• By any chance: Bằng cách nào đó
– Are you by any chance looking for a new staff member?
• By default: việc xảy ra bởi không có hành động ngăn lại
– If we don’t do something, they’ll win by default.
3. Cụm giới từ “FOR”
• for ages: Thời gian rất lâu
– I haven’t seen you for ages. Where have you been?
• for breakfast/lunch/dinner: Cho bữa ăn
– What did you have for breakfast today?
• for certain/sure: chắc chắn
– I know for certain that I won’t be here next year.
• for a change: Thay đổi
– We always go there. Let’s go to another bar for a change.
• for ever (or forever) – Nobody can live for ever, unfortunately.
• for example: ví dụ – You could, for example, walk instead of taking the car.
• for fear of: Sợ
– I didn’t tell him for fear of upsetting him.
• for fun – I don’t take sport seriously, I do it just for fun.
• for good: mãi mãi
– I’m not coming back. This time I’m leaving for good.
• for hire: có sẵn cho thuê
– There are cars and vans for hire at the airport.
• for instance: Ví dụ
– You should study another language, for instance, Italian.
• for luck: may mắn – I always wear this bracelet for luck.
• for life: cả đời – Working for the government is a job for life.
• for love: vì tình yêu – I definitely don’t do it for the money, I do it for love.
• for a moment: một lúc nào đó
– For a moment, I thought she was being serious.
• for the moment: lúc này
– I’m happy living in London for the moment.
• for nothing: Không vì gì cả
– I can’t believe it’s closed. I came all this way for nothing.
• for once: Ít nhất một lần
– Late again! For once, can you try to arrive on time?
• for the rest of: Thời gian còn lại
– I could live here for the rest of my life.
• for safekeeping: giữ an toàn
– At the gym, I put my stuff in a locker for safekeeping.
• for somebody’s sake: vì lợi ích của ai
– Maria was upset so I had to be calm for her sake.
• for the sake of: vì lợi ích
– They stayed together for the sake of their children.
• for sale: Giảm giá
– There’s a lovely house for sale at the end of this street.
• for short: gọi tắt – My name is John but my family call me ) for short.
• for the time being: Ngay lúc này – I’m happy in my current job for the time being.
• for a visit/holiday – I’m in the mood for a holiday. Let’s go somewhere.
• for a walk: đi bộ
– I needed to calm down so I went for a long walk.
• for a while: một lúc
– I haven’t spoken to him for a while.
4. Cụm giới từ với “In”
• in a (good/bad) mood: lúc cảm giác vui, buồn
– I’m not in a good mood today so leave me alone, please.
• in a hurry: Vội
– I can’t talk right now as I’m in a hurry.
• in a mess: Hỗn độn
– The whole house is in a mess. We need to tidy it today.
• in a way: Bằng cách nào đó
– Can money buy happiness? In a way, I think so.
• in action: Thực tế
– I went to Camp Nou to see Lionel Messi in action last week.
• in addition (to): Để làm gì
– In addition to feeling tired, I felt a bit sick.
• in aduance (of): trước
– It’s a busy restaurant so we should book a table in advance.
• in agreement with: Thỏa thuận với ai
– I’m in agreement with many of the views of my classmates.
• in any case: Dù sao
– I don’t want to go and in any case, I wasn’t invited.
• in brief: Tổng thể
– The interview was, in brief, a complete disaster.
• in case (+ clause): Trong trường hợp
– Take an umbrella in case it rains.
• in case of (+ noun):
– In case of emergency, dial 911.
• in cash: tiền mặt
– I’d prefer to pay in cash, if you don’t mind.
• in charge of: có trách nhiệm, đứng đầu
– Our president is too incompetent to be in charge of the economy.
• in common (with): Điểm chung
– I have a lot of in common with my best friend.
• in comparison with: So sánh với
– The weather in Scotland is awful in comparison with Italy.
• in conclusion: Tổng kết – In conclusion, I believe we should do more to help the poor.
• in confidence: bí mật, riêng tư
– I told you that story in confidence but you told everyone.
• in control (of): kiểm soát
– He’s not in control of his emotions so he gets upset very easily.
• in danger (of): trong vòng nguy hiểm
– If you don’t change your diet, you’re in danger of being very ill.
• in debt: nợ nần
– He’s in debt, which means he owes money to the bank.
• in detail: chi tiết
– She described what had happened to her in detail.
• in difficulty: Gặp khó khăn
– If you’re in difficulty, I’m happy to give you a helping hand.
• in disguise: cải trang để tránh gì đó
– Celebrities often go out in disguise in order to avoid paparazzi.
• in doubt: Nghi ngờ
– The festival is in doubt on account of the huge storm.
• in exchange for: làm gì để đổi lại gì
– I washed my father’s car in exchange for some pocket money.
• in fact – I don’t feel tired at all. In fact, I’m full of energy.
• in fashion – Beards were in fashion last year but they’re out of fashion now.
• in front of – There’s a bus stop right in front of my house, which is handy.
• in future – I’m not angry but in future, text me if you’re going to be late.
• in general: Tổng thể
– In general, I think that people in Ireland are very friendly.
• in good/bad condition – My car is in really bad condition so I need to get it repaired.
• in ink/pencil – It’s better to write in pencil so that you can correct it later.
• in love (with) – I fell in love with her the moment I met her.
• in moderation: Trong vòng kiểm soát
– I eat meat in moderation as I think too much is bad for you.
• in no time: rất nhanh
– Study every day and your level of English will improve in no time.
• in one’s free time – I enjoy hanging out with friends in my free time.
• in other words: Giải thích chi tiết thêm
– I haven’t got a penny to my name this month. In other words, I’m broke.
• in pain – The vet decided to put down the animal as it was in a lot of pain.
• in particular: thích gì hơn
– I enjoyed my trip to London; in particular, I loved Camden Town.
• in person: gặp mặt trực tiếp
– l’ue spoken to him on facebook but never met him in person.
• in practice/theory: Theo giả thuyết
– In theory, summers should be warm and sunny but it never happens here.
• in prison/jail – There’s not a single corrupt politician in prison, which is simply wrong.
• in private/public – I have to speak to you in private. Do you have a minute?
• in return: Chiều trả lại – I teach her English and she teaches me Spanish in return.
• in somebody’s interest – It’s in your best interest to do a bit of exercise every day.
• in somebody’s opinion – In my opinion, Florence is the most beautiful city in the world.
• in season – I try to buy vegetables and fruits that are in season.
• in secret – I told you that story in secret and you told half of the world! • in self-defence – The defendant claimed he had been acting in self-defence. • in some respects – In some respects, I had been expecting Brexit but I’m still surprised.
• in stock – I wanted to buy the jacket but the shop didn’t have my size in stock.
• in summer/winter – There’s nothing better than going to the beach in summer.
• in tears – He insulted her appearance and she left the party in tears.
• in the air – There was a feeling of tension in the air when he entered the room.
• in the beginning – It was hard in the beginning but I soon adapted to life in Ireland.
• in the dark- She hasn’t told me anything. I’m in the dark about her decision.
• in the end – In the end, family and friends are the most important people in life.
• in the habit of – I’m in the habit of waking up early and going for a run. • in the meantime – The film starts at 19:00. In the meantime, let’s have some dinner.
• in the mood for – I’m not in the mood for English class now. I’d prefer to watch a movie.
• in the mountains – Do you like spending time in the mountains or do you prefer the sea?
• in the news – Silly celebrities are often in the news in my country. It’s a shame.
• in the nude – Stop walking around the flat in the nude – the neighbours can see you.
• in time – I left my house early and arrived in time to have a coffee before work.
• in touch – I’m not in touch with him any longer. We lost contact a few years ago.
• in town – I’ll give you a call if I’m in town next week. It would be nice to catch up.
• in two/half – I broke the chocolate bar in two and gave one half to my nephew.
• in vain – I tried to convince her to go out but all of my efforts were in vain.
• In a hurry – I can’t stop now. I’m in a hurry.
• In a lather – She was in a lather because she couldn’t find her passport.
• In a minute – Clean the kitchen, your grandma’s coming in a minute.
• In a nutshell – He had a lot to say, but his answer, in a nutshell, was no.
• In a row – After making losses four years in a row, the manager knew she had to sack someone,
• In a row – Bottles of every type of alcohol they had were lined up in a row behind the bar.
• In absentia – The defendant was convicted in absentia after fleeing during the trial.
• In action – Seeing a steam engine in action is increasingly rare.
• In action – He was wounded in action in his second tour.
• In advance – The money was paid in advance.
• In agreement – I am in agreement with you as far as the basic design, but not with the colour scheme you suggest.
• In agreement – The results are in agreement with the calculated figures. • In all honesty – I didn’t get a girlfriend, though in all honesty, I’m still undecided whether I really want to have one.
• In order – Place the cards in order by color, then by number.
5. Cụm giới từ với “ON”
• Act on st (v): hành động theo cái gì
– There have been concerns as to why the Board didn’t act on a recommended pay raise.
• Based on st (adj): dựa trên cái gì
– The movie is based on the true story of a England gangster.
• Call on sb to do st (v): kêu gọi ai làm gì
– They’re calling on all men and boys over the age of 14 to join the army.
• Comment on st (v): bình luận về cái gì
– He always comments on my clothes
• Concentrate on st (v): tập trung vào việc gì
– She gave up her job to concentrate on writing a novel.
• Congratulate sb on st (v): chúc mừng ai đó trong dịp gì
– My friends congratulated me on passing the test
• Consult sb on st (v): tham khảo ai đó về vấn đề gì
• Count on st (v): lên kế hoạch dựa trên điều gì đó
– Sorry I’m late, I didn’t count on being held up in the traffic.
• Decide on st (v): quyết định về cái gì
– I’ve decided on blue for the bathroom.
• Depend on sb/st (v): lệ thuộc vào ai /vào cái gì
– The country depends heavily on foreign aid
• Get on a train/a bus/ a plane (v): lên tàu hoả/ xe bus/ máy bay
• Intent on st (adj): tập trung tư tưởng vào cái gì
• Keen on st (adj): mê cái gì
– I’m very keen on sports.
• Set on fire (v): phát hoả, đốt cháy
– The new album of Madonna sets the world on fire.
• Smile on sth/sb (v): cư xử tích cực với ai
– The government began to smile on small businesses when it realized that they were the key to economic growth.
Bài tập về cụm giới từ – EXERCISES ON PREPOSITION
Bài tập 1: Điền vào giới từ in, at, on vào chỗ trống thích hợp
1. …… the afternoon
2. …… February
3. …… Christmas
4. …… 1991
5. …… Tuesday morning
6. …… summer
7. …… the moment
8. …… sunrise
9. …… April
10……. the future
12……. birthday party
15……. 2nd September 1945
16……. 10th January
17. ……1600 Pennsylvania Ave
18. ……the gym
19. ……the farm
20. ……the airport
Bài tập 2: Hoàn thành các câu sau với in, on, at.
1. Mary wants to live and work………New York.
2. My mother is working………the farm.
3. I am standing………the crossroad. I don’t know whether to turn left, turn right or go straight on.
4. ………university, he was an excellent student.
5. My grandparents live………456 Mountain Street………Australia.
6. There is a funny cartoon………TV now.
7. At present, I am………home while my friends are………school.
8. Everyone, open your book………page 123 and we start the lesson.
Bài tập 3: Chọn đáp án
- I have photographs of my family _______ the wall of my office.
A. on B. next to C. at D. in
2. Mr. Smith’s jacket is _______ the closet.
A. under B. in C. at D. from
3. Where’s John? He’s over there. He’s standing________ Ellen.
A. on B. under C. next to D. between
4. It arrives_________ Chicago at ten o’clock.
A. at B. in C. near D. from
5. The teacher stands ________the class.
A. from B. at C. in front of D. by
6. There is a map on the wall just ________ the teacher’s desk.
A. from B. above C. before D. in front of
7. February comes________ March
A. behind B. after C. before D. during
8. July comes ________ June.
A. before B. after C. behind D. in
9. “Tall” is the opposite ________”short”.
A. to B. of C. against D. with
10. I always eat ______home.
A. at B. in C. from D.to
Bài tập 4: Điền vào chỗ trống
- The price of electricity is going up _____ August.
- They came to visit us _____ my birthday.
- Did you have a good time _____ Christmas?
- The children are really excited _____ their summer vacation.
- We were very disappointed _____ the organization of the festival.
- John missed a lot of lessons. He was ill _____ January to March.
- Helen had said goodbye to everybody in the class _____ she left for the hometown.
- My cat is very fond _____ fish.
- I waited _____ 10 o’clock and then went home.
- I can’t remember exactly when the accident happened. I think it was _____ nine and half-past nine.
- Are you acquainted _____ the lady?
- _____ the children left, the house was very quiet.
- These photographs were taken _____ a friend of mine.
- The river Rhine flows _____ the North sea.
- I shall meet you _____ the corner _____ the street.
- I always come _____ school _____ foot.
- He had learned the whole poem _____ heart.
- He has waited _____ her for a long time.
- He’s not very keen _____ watching football, but his wife is.
- Are you worried _____ the final examination?
Bài tập 1:
1. in the afternoon
2. in February
3. at Christmas
4. in 1991
5. on Tuesday morning
6. on summer
7. at the moment
8. at sunrise
9. in April
10.in the future
12.at birthday party
15.on 2nd September 1945
16.on 10th January
17.at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave
18.at the gym
19.on the farm
20.at the airport
Bài tập 2:
1. Mary wants to live and work in New York.
2. My mother is working on the farm.
3. I am standing at the crossroad. I don’t know whether to turn left, turn right or go straight on.
4. At university, he was an excellent student.
5. My grandparents live at 456 Mountain Street in Australia.
6. There is a funny cartoon on TV now.
7. At present, I am at home while my friends are in school.
8. Everyone, open your book on page 123 and we start the lesson.
- A. on
- B. in
- C. next to
- B. in
- C. in front of
- B. above
- C. before
- B. after
- B. of
- A. at
1. in 2. on 3. at 4. about 5. with
6. from 7. before 8. of 9. until 10. between
11. with 12. After 13. by 14. into 15. at/ of
16. to/ on 17. by 18. for 19. on 20. about
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